BIRTH CONTROL: METHODS OF STERILIZATIONFEMALE
Oophorectomy is the surgical removal of both ovaries, which brings the process of ovulation permanently to a halt. Because this procedure means the removal of the source of certain hormones, it has been known to prompt certain undesirable physical changes, such as excessive weight gain, growth of facial hair, and a deepening of the voice. In addition, a woman's sexual desire frequently undergoes a change, and she may experience such discomforts as hot flashes, sweating, nervousness, and even tremor. Hormone therapy will usually correct these adverse conditions.
Salpingectomy is a straightforward but major surgical procedure, best performed during a Caesarean section. (The counterpart operation on a man, a vasectomy, is much less complicated.) The Fallopian tubes are cut, tied, and resectioned in order to prevent the two ends from thereafter meeting, thus keeping the sperm and ova from ever contacting one another.
Intrauterine coagulation of the uterine tube outlet is a method of sterilization presently used extensively in Japan, which will probably soon be performed in the United States. A specially designed instrument is inserted through the uterus to the intrauterine openings of the Fallopian tubes, where it electrically cauterizes the orifices. This process causes scar tissue to form; the tubular openings are thus blocked, and sperm and ova are prevented from coming together. The effect is permanent, for it would be almost impossible to reopen the tiny Fallopian tubes.
Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus. The process may include removal of one or both ovaries, and one or both tubes. A hysterectomy is almost never performed for the purpose of sterilization alone, but usually to remedy certain abnormalities such as a fibroid tumor. In current practice, especially in uncomplicated cases, the uterus is often removed via the vagina, thus eliminating abdominal incision and scarring.
In an investigation of 35,000 tubal sterilizations, it was found that about one in 200 of the operations failed to prevent subsequent pregnancies.107 Women's sex drive is not likely to be impaired following sterilization; to the contrary, there may well be an increase in drive because of the sense of freedom engendered by removing the fear of pregnancy.
Men's Health Erectile Dysfunction